Thursday, June 30, 2005

Happy Birthday America on Our 229th

Most of us enjoy birthday parties unless we dwell too much on how the years accumulate to age us. As we think of America’s birthday, July 4, we celebrate 229 years of our country’s independent existence. We will gather as families to have picnics. Some will travel, taking a week or more of vacation. Fireworks and special patriotic events will inspire us. The colors red, white and blue will be much in evidence. July 4 is a birthday to remember what the founding fathers believed in and what they fought to secure.

Thomas Jefferson of Virginia was chosen to draft the Declaration of Independence, with assistance from committee members John Adams of Massachusetts, Ben Franklin of Pennsylvania, Robert Livingston of New York, and Roger Sherman of Connecticut.

John Adams wrote about the document: “There is not an idea in it but what had been hackneyed in Congress for two years before.” His reference was concerning the declaration of rights and violations of those rights. James Otis had printed most of the complaints against Great Britain in a pamphlet in Boston in 1774 which Samuel Adams had approved.

It is awe-inspiring to visit Independence Hall in Philadelphia and see the table on which the members of the Continental Congress signed the document, making it the official Declaration of War as well as the Declaration of Independence. In July of 1776 independence stretched ahead through years of bitter combat and loss of countless lives.

Dr. Benjamin Rush of Pennsylvania wrote of the signing: “Do you recall the pensive and awful silence which pervaded the house when we were called up, one after another, to the table of the President of Congress to subscribe what was believed by many to be our own death warrants?”

The document ended with these notable words: “And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.” They did not fear to offend by reference to the Sovereign God.

The 56 men who signed from the United Colonies (“and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States”) they represented were: New Hampshire: Josiah Bartlett, William Whipple, Matthew Thornton; Massachusetts: John Hancock, Samuel Adams, John Adams, Robert Treat Paine, Elbridge Gerry; Rhode Island: Stephen Hopkins, William Ellery; Connecticut: Roger Sherman, Samuel Huntington, William Williams, Oliver Wolcott; New York: William Floyd, Philip Livingston, Francis Lewis, Lewis Morris; New Jersey: Richard Stockton, John Witherspoon, Francis Hopkinson, John Hart, Abraham Clark; Pennsylvania: Robert Morris, Benjamin Rush, Benjamin Franklin, John Morton, George Clymer, James Smith, George Taylor, James Wilson, George Ross; Delaware: Caesar Rodney, George Read, Thomas McKean; Maryland: Samuel Chase, William Paca, Thomas Stone, Charles Carroll (of Carrollton); Virginia: George Wythe, Richard Henry Lee, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Harrison, Thomas Nelson, Jr., Francis Lightfoot Lee; Carter Braxton; North Carolina: William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, John Penn; South Carolina: Edward Rutledge, Thomas Heyward Jr., Thomas Lynch Jr., Arthur Middleton; Georgia: Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, George Walton.

The men went to Philadelphia at a busy time of the year, leaving their farms and businesses. Their transportation was on horseback or by carriage. They provided their own upkeep on the journey and while in the city.

To “pledge their lives, their fortunes and their sacred honor” proved the ultimate test. Five of the signers were captured by the British, declared traitors, and tortured brutally before they died. Two lost sons serving in the Revolutionary War. Twelve had their homes invaded, ransacked and burned and their families were scattered. Nine fought and died from wounds received in the war. Carter Braxton’s ships were swept from the seas by the British Navy and he lost his home and property to pay his debts. Thomas McKean of Delaware had to move his family constantly. He lost his possessions and died in poverty. Property was looted and destroyed owned by Ellery, Hall, Clymer, Walton, Gwinnett, Heyward, Rutledge, Middleton, Hart and others. The story continues with all 56 and their sacrifices of “lives, fortunes, sacred honor.”

Those patriots of 229 years ago and following fought British dominion. They also fought to establish a government “of the people, for the people, by the people.” The men were not ruffians or rabble-rousers. They were men of education, professionalism and economic means. When the war began, they had security. But they valued freedom more and risked all they had for it.

On the Fourth of July we remember. We lift our hearts to salute them and the hosts of patriots since. We know that freedom is never free.

[References: Eyewitness to America, edited by David Colbert, Pantheon Books, 1997. Various internet links with Declaration of Independence websites: Universities, National Archives and Records Administration, and the Library of Congress.]

c2005 by Ethelene Dyer Jones; published June 30, 2005 in The Union Sentinel, Blairsville, GA. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.

Thursday, June 23, 2005

Vogel State Park, a Delightful Get-Away

It’s summertime, and we think about vacations, getting away for a week or more, or having short one-day trips to enjoy a picnic or relaxation by a lake.

Within Union County is one of the most popular get-aways in the state of Georgia. Vogel State Park, the second oldest in Georgia, is now a year-round attraction. Reservations for cottages and campsites must be made well in advance.

By way of information, the only park older than Vogel in Georgia is Indian Springs State Park near Jackson in Middle Georgia. It is believed to be the oldest state park in the nation. Acquired by Georgia in 1825, it became an official “State Forest Park” in 1927. Indian Springs, as the name indicates, has springs once used by the Creek Indians for centuries as a place of healing waters. The Civilian Conservation Corps during the 1930’s helped to build some of the structures still standing within this oldest state park.

The history of Vogel State Park in Union County dates back to a gift of land by Fred Vogel, Jr. and Augustus H. Vogel who gave an initial donation of sixteen acres to the state of Georgia. The Vogels were in the tanning industry in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and owned about 65,000 acres of land in the mountain region of Georgia. They used the bark from trees in these forests for tanwood and tanbark needed for the tanning of leather in their factory back in Wisconsin. How the bark was shipped out from the mountains is another story, hauled by wagon along poor mountain roads to the nearest railroad station, Gainesville. When a synthetic tanning acid was developed and became more readily available, the Vogels no longer needed their vast acreages of forest lands. In addition to the first sixteen acres, the Vogels gave another 248 acres and land at the summit of Neel Gap where the Vogels entertained at what they called “The Tea Room.”.

When President Franklin Delano Roosevelt formed the Civilian Conservation Corps in 1933 during the Great Depression to give employment to young men ages 18 through 25, a camp to house the CCC boys was set up at Goose Creek. They built the rock and dirt dam on Wolf Creek. The resulting beautiful Lake Trahlyta, centerpiece of Vogel State Park, was named for a Cherokee Indian maiden whose grave is believed to be at Stonepile Gap.

At the top of Neel Gap, the old Vogel Tea Room was incorporated into a lovely rock building called for many years the Wal-i-si-yi (in Cherokee, “place of the frogs”) Inn. The CCC men erected the stone building which, in itself, is an architectural delight using native rocks and ceiled with chestnut wood, used just prior to the terrible blight that erased the American chestnut tree from the mountain landscape. The building is now a stop on the famed Appalachian Trail. Many of us can remember when a delightful restaurant operated at Walisiyi Inn and was a popular local as well as a tourist destination.

Blood Mountain towers above Vogel State Park’s present 233 acres where walking trails abound. Legend holds that a war between Cherokee and Creek Indians on the mountain before the white man came caused such bloodshed that the ground of the mountain was red with blood, hence the name.

Vogel State Park was named for the leather manufacturers who first gave the land. In the Chattahoochee National Forest, this second oldest state park in Georgia is a tribute to the hard work of the CCC “boys” and of a president who was a conservationist at heart. One historian, Harry Rossoll, stated that the CCC was “a massive salvage operation destined to become the most popular experiment of the New Deal.” To restore America to “its former beauty” was a major aim. Reforestation, road building, erosion control, and forest fire fighting were all jobs done by “Roosevelt’s Tree Army” (the CCC).

Today when we take our summer (or fall, winter or spring) get-away to Vogel State Park, we can visit the small museum to the Civilian Conservation Corps in a room of the main building. A reunion for surviving CCC “boys” is held annually at Vogel. On July 4 at 8:30 a. m., a ceremonial flag-raising will pay tribute to our nation and the freedoms we enjoy in Independence Day services at Vogel.

As we enjoy the beauty of nature in the surrounding mountains and the cool waters of the twenty-acre Lake Trahlyta, we should pause to remember the hard work of a by-gone era when the labor was done without benefit of modern equipment, and when the boys of “the tree army” sent home $25.00 of the $30.00 a month they earned to help their families during America’s Great Depression.

c2005 by Ethelene Dyer Jones; published June 23, 2005 in The Union Sentinel, Blairsville, GA. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.

Thursday, June 16, 2005

Some Ingrams and Their Spouses

We have, for two weeks, written about the families of John Little Ingram (1788-1866) and his father, Revolutionary War soldier, also named John Little Ingram (1755-1828). It is interesting to note some of the marriages of descendants of these Ingrams and see how the marriages linked Ingrams to other early settler families of Union County, Georgia.

Sarah (better known as Sally) Ingram (1820- ?) was the fourth child of John Little Ingram (1788-1866) and his first wife, Mary “Polly” Cagle Ingram (1793-1829-30?). Sally Ingram married Thompson Collins, Jr. (1818- ?). “Thompie,” as he was known, was a son of early settlers Thompson Collins (1785-1858) and Celia Self Collins (1787-1880). Thompie and Sally did not have any children; at least, not any who lived to adulthood. Thompie Collins had a large portion of farmland near the Notla River from holdings his father had claimed in the 22,000 acres that once belonged to the elder Thompson Collins.

Thompie developed the land and had one of the largest apple orchards known then in the Choestoe District along what is now Collins Road on a rise between the present Wilonell Collins Dyer property and what was the Jewel Marion Dyer property.

Thompie Collins was, for many years, a justice of the peace for the Choestoe District. In viewing early Union County marriage records, the name of Thompson Collins appears often as officiant of marriages in the community.

Nancy Ingram (1823-1897) was the sixth child of John Little and Mary “Polly” Cagle Ingram. She married Athan England (1815-1893), a son of William Richard England (1770-1835) and Martha “Patsy” Montgomery England (178-1865). Richard England’s parents were Daniel (1752-1818) and Margaret Gwynn England (1758-1847). During the Revolutionary War, Daniel England performed patriotic service by operating his iron foundry at his large plantation on Hunting Creek near Morganton, NC, for the war effort. When some of the England children migrated to what is now White County (then Habersham) during the gold rush of 1828, Margaret, widowed, went with them. When Richard and Martha England settled in Choestoe, Union County, in the early 1830’s, Margaret England moved with them. Margaret’s is said to be the first grave in the old Choestoe Church Cemetery. Athan and Nancy Ingram England had these children: California E. England, Tom P. England, Richard Little England, William H. England, and John E. England. Athan and Nancy lived on a farm in the area that is now the Georgia Mountain Experiment Station off Highway 129/19 south of Blairsville.

Eliza Louisa Ingram (1827-1907) was the eighth child of John Little and Mary “Polly” Cagle Ingram. She married James Marion Dyer (1823-1904) on June 18, 1846. They lived on a farm on Cane Creek, Choestoe, where James Marion’s parents, Bluford Elisha Dyer, Jr. (1780-1845) and Elizabeth Clark Dyer (1785-1861) had settled in the early 1830’s. James Marion and Louisa Ingram Dyer had a large family of twelve children: Harriet Emaline who married Carr Colllins; Joseph G. who married Polly Turner; Micager C. (“Buck”) who married Josephine Henson; Archibald C. Young who married Hannah Jane Wimpey; James C. Dyer, died at age two; Bluford Elisha Dyer who married Sarah Evaline Souther; Nancy “Sis” Dyer who married William Hunter; Elizabeth Caroline “Hon” Dyer who married William Albert Souther; Jefferson Beauregard Dyer who married Rhoda Souther; Francis Marion Dyer who married Molly Dyer and Helen Dann; Mary Dyer, died young; and James C. Dyer who married Malissa Swain.

Malinda Ingram (1829- ?) was the ninth child of John Little and Mary “Polly” Cagle Ingram. She married Andrew Townsend, son of Eli and Sarah “Sally” Dyer Ingram. Andrew Townsend, along with his father, Eli, served in the Texas War for Independence against Mexico, and was honorably discharged from the service of the United States on July 13, 1848 at Mobile, Alabama. For his service, Andrew Townsend received 160 acres of bounty land. Malinda and Andrew Townsend had these children: Thompson L. “Bud” Townsend who never married; Thomas Simpson “Simp” Townsend who married Ruthie West and Wilda Hood; Nancy J. Townsend who married Thomas N. England; Amanda Jane Townsend who married Enoch Chapman Hood; Andrew Crockett Townsend, Jr., who married Myra Anne Duckworth, Mary Duckworth and Mary Hunter; Elizabeth Townsend who married William Jackson Shuler; and Clarasie Townsend who married Joshua Columbus Fortenberry.

Since these daughters of John Little Ingram (Sally, Nancy, Louisa and Malinda) are only four of the twenty-one children of John Little Ingram who grew to adulthood, these families comprise only a small portion of Ingram descendants. If you can make your own kinship connection back to any of these, you share in a rich heritage of Ingrams who reach back to England, Wales and Scotland before migrating to the New World in the late 1600’s.

c2005 by Ethelene Dyer Jones; published June 16, 2005 in The Union Sentinel, Blairsville, GA. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.

Thursday, June 9, 2005

Revolutionary War Patriot John Little Ingram

John Little Ingram, Union County, Georgia early settler, the subject of last week’s column, with his twenty-one children reared to adulthood, was a son of Revolutionary War patriot John Little Ingram of South Carolina.

The records on the father of John Little Ingram born about 1755 in South Carolina are hard to determine. Since John seems a common given name for Ingrams, we note several John Ingrams who immigrated from England to Virginia. The first among these came in November, 1643 and claimed 300 acres in Elizabeth City. Another John Ingram settled in Virginia in 1652, the third in 1656, and the fourth in 1662. A Joseph Ingram immigrated in 1652. Two Richard Ingrams settled in Virginia, one in 1642, another in 1653. Toby Ingram arrived in Virginia in 1653. An indentured servant, who had to work seven years before he received his freedom, was William Ingram transported from Kent, England to Virginia on the ship “Forward Gally” in December, 1731.

On March 1, 1790, President George Washington signed into law the Census Act and ordered a compilation by heads of households of citizens in the thirteen states of the Union. There were 104 families of Ingrams (also spelled Ingraham) enumerated that year in eleven of the thirteen states, with none listed in New Hampshire and Rhode Island. North Carolina had the largest concentration with 32 Ingram (Ingraham) families, South Carolina had thirteen and Virginia had thirteen.

A year after his order to enumerate the colonists in the first US Census, President George Washington made a trip to South Carolina. His diary entry of May 26, 1791 stated that he “lodged at James Ingram’s fourteen miles farther” from Camden, SC. Further entries in President Washington’s diary show that “Mr. Porter and Mr. Ingraham” “dined and spent the night at Mt. Vernon (January 16, 1787). Between that date and July 21, 1788, the said “Ingraham and Porter” again were guests of Washington on these dates in 1788: January 20, February 3, 13, 15, 28 and July 21. They seem to have enjoyed the president’s Mt. Vernon hospitality and, on February 15, a fox hunt with a distinguished guest, the Marquis de Choppedelaine of France. Whether this James Ingram of South Carolina, friend of George Washington, was a brother or other close relative of John Little Ingram, research has not proved.

Later, on March 4, 1795, Washington again spent the night in the home of James Ingram near Camden, SC on the Wateree River. James may have been a son of William Ingram who settled on land at the Wateree River in 1752.

That William Ingram migrated from Wales to Virginia. He asked for and received a land grant in South Carolina. The land is described thus: “Persuant to a precept to me by George Hunter, Esq., bearing date 7 April 1752, I have measured and laid out a tract of land containing 300 acres, being in Craven County, north side of the Wateree River butting and adjoining land laid out to William Harrison and part of vacant land and to the N. E. and S. E. of vacant land, and hath such shape and marks as the above plat. Certified to me this 23 day of April 1752. (Signed William Ingram).

That William Ingram had three known sons named John, James and Arthur. It seems reasonable (though not proven) that John Little Ingram of Union County, SC could have been the John Little Ingram, Revolutionary War soldier, and the James Ingram the friend who had received President George Washington into his home on the Wateree and who was also entertained by the president at Mt. Vernon. However, Watson Benjamin Dyer in his research on the Ingrams stated that “John Ingram was evidently the son of Benjamin Ingram of Lancaster County, SC, because there were boys named Benjamin on down in the family” (p. 390, Dyer Family History). Since we have not seen a definitive record of the parentage of John Little Ingram, born about 1755 in South Carolina, we can only surmise who his father was, but this writer tends to lean toward William Ingram as the father.

Wedding bells rang for Rutha White and John Ingram in 1778. They were married at Fair Forest Baptist Church in Union County, SC, with the Rev. James Crowder, Rutha’s pastor, performing the ceremony. Married only two years after America’s Declaration of Independence in 1776, John Little Ingram, Sr. was caught up, as were his neighbors, in the spirit of patriotism sweeping the colonies. He enlisted as a private in Captain John Putnam’s Company of South Carolina militia, Colonel Brandon’s Regiment. His service number was R-5483.

Years later, when Rutha White Ingram applied for a pension for her husband’s Revolutionary War service, she recorded that he was in the Siege of Charleston, and the Battles of King’s Mountain and Cowpens. The Charleston Siege confrontation with British and Loyalist forces ended in great disappointment. Fought from March 29 through May 12, 1780, Patriot Major General Lincoln surrendered Charleston. It was occupied by British forces until the British evacuated Charleston On December 14, 1782.

Ingram fought at the Battle of King’s Mountain, SC, on October 7, 1780. Frontier militia from South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia and Georgia converged and surrounded Patrick Ferguson’s forces, defeating them. King’s Mountain was a turning point in the Revolution, a decisive victory for the American Patriots.

Three months later, on January 17, 1781, John Ingram was with the militia forces under the notable Patriot Brigadier General Daniel Morgan as they attacked General Banastre Tarleton’s forces of British Regulars at the Battle of Cowpens in South Carolina. Historians have recognized that battle as one of the most important of the American Revolution. It was customary for militia members to sign on for three month terms and fight in battles near their homes. Those frontier soldiers bravely defended America, turning the tide of war and leading to the surrender of British General Cornwallis on October 19, 1781 at Yorktown, Virginia.

After the war, John and Rutha Ingram moved from their home at Padgett’s Creek, Union County, SC, to a land grant received for his Revolutionary War service in what was then Franklin County, Georgia. The area where they settled became Hall County in 1819, in the vicinity of what is now Lula, Georgia. There the patriot John Ingram died September 16, 1828. Even though his widow, Rutha White Ingram, made petitions for pension, she did not receive any payment for her husband’s Revolutionary War service. Rutha White Ingram died at the home of her son, Tillman Ingram, in Cherokee County, Georgia near Ball Ground (date unknown), but she was alive at age 89 in 1847, still applying for a widow’s pension. The pension quest did not rest with Rutha’s death. John Little Ingram, son and executor, of Union County, Georgia, made petition for himself and Tillman Ingram and Elizabeth Riley Ingram, three living children of the patriot, on October 26, 1852. Like their mother Rutha’s petition, this one was also denied.

Many descendants of John Ingram have established a direct line to this patriot and received admission into the Sons and Daughters of the American Revolution. Even though Rutha White Ingram did not receive monetary remuneration in the years of her widowhood, subsequent intrinsic benefits to their heirs in past, present and future generations are testimony to the significant contributions this couple made to America’s freedom.

c2005 by Ethelene Dyer Jones; published June 9, 2005 in The Union Sentinel, Blairsville, GA. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.

Thursday, June 2, 2005

John Little Ingram, Father of a Large Family

John Little Ingram (1788-1866), the father of twenty-two children, twenty-one of whom lived to be adults, was the ancestor of many with Union County, Georgia connections.

John Little Ingram was married three times and had children by each wife. First he married Mary “Polly” Cagle (1793-1829). Their ten children included one child that died as an infant and nine more, seven daughters and two sons: Rebecca, Isaac, Elizabeth, Sarah, Tillman, Nancy, Mary Jane, Louisa and Malinda.

After his wife Mary “Polly” died, John Little Ingram married Cynthia Kittle in 1830. To them were born ten children, five sons and five daughters: Lucretia, Little, Jr., Ginsey, Allen, Clary, Cynthia, Jeremiah, Benjamin, Ruth and Martin.

After his second wife’s death, John Little Ingram married, third, Catherine Cameron in Franklin County, Georgia on February 22, 1845. He and Catherine had two sons, Joseph (1846) and William (1847). His third wife died before 1860. By then, several of the twenty-one children of John Little Ingram had already married and established homes of their own, with the first of his and Mary Cagle Ingram’s children, Rebecca, herself marrying a Cagle—Joseph Roland---in 1834.

At the age of 78, John Little Ingram died at the home of his daughter, Lucretia Ingram Rhodes in the Ivy Log District of Union County. She was the first child of Little’s second wife, Cynthia Kittle Ingram. Lucretia had married George Rhodes, a widower with two small sons, Grant and Wiley Rhodes. Even though John Little Ingram had been an early member of Choestoe Baptist Church (listed in the 1836 membership rolls), he was buried at the Ivy Log Baptist Church Cemetery, because transporting the body to Choestoe in 1866 would have been a long journey by wagon. His first wife Mary had been buried in Hall County. His second wife Cynthia may have been buried in the Gaddistown District of Union County where the family lived at the time of her death. The place of interment of his third wife, Catherine, is unknown.

There is no stone marking the grave of War of 1812 patriot John Little Ingram. I wish we knew the exact location so we could erect a monument to his memory.

My interest in the Ingram family stems from my great grandmother, Louisa Eliza Ingram (1827-1907) who married James Marion Dyer (1822-1904) on June 18, 1846. Louisa was the eighth child of John Little Ingram and Mary “Polly” Cagle Ingram. The sixth of the twelve children born to Louisa and James Marion Dyer was Bluford Elisha Dyer (1855-1926), my grandfather, who married Sarah Evaline Souther (1857-1959). The tenth of the fifteen children of Bluford and Sarah was my father, Jewel Marion Dyer (1890-1974) who married Azie Collins (1895-1945).

The Ingrams in America were patriotic. John Little Ingram, my great, great grandfather, was a soldier in the War of 1812. His first service was near Nashville, Tennessee for six months. He enlisted again from Franklin County, Georgia and fought at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in Alabama with General Andrew Jackson in 1814. It was there that the Creek Indians known as “The Red Sticks” rose up against white settlers. General Jackson and his soldiers were dispatched to put an end to the Indian uprising at Horseshoe Bend.

We can only imagine the stories John Little Ingram told his many children of his experiences as a soldier in the War of 1812 and his service in the Indian uprisings. Little Ingram was discharged at Augusta, Georgia in 1814. He brought home with him a small hymn book that became a family treasure. It was passed on through his youngest son, William P. Ingram (son of Little and Catherine Cameron) who lived in Culberson, NC. As late as 1935, George Ingram, son of William P., still had the old hymnbook in his possession.

Five of John Little Ingram’s sons served in the Civil War and three of them lost their lives in that conflict. Tillman Ingram (1822-1863) was the fifth child of Little and Mary “Polly” Cagle Ingram. His first enlistment ended in discharge with the notation that he was “too old for service.” However, Tillman, wishing to “defend against the enemy,” reenlisted, giving his age as younger than his actual years. He died of a raging fever in Trinity, Texas during the war. Four of Tillman’s sons, John Robert, Thomas B., John C. and Edmond Dale, fought in the Texas War for Independence against Mexico.

Little Ingram, Jr. (1832-1863), son of Little’s second wife, Cynthia Kittle, died at the Battle of Vicksburg, Mississippi and was buried there. He had married Mary King on March 8, 1855. She was left a widow with little children, but information about their family has not yet been gathered by this researcher.

Jeremiah Ingram (1838-?) was a brother to Little, Jr. and the seventh child of John Little and Cynthia Kittle Ingram. He enlisted in the Confederate Army and fought at the Battle of Chancelorsville, Virginia where he was captured May 3, 1863. He was paroled from Fort Delaware (probably in a prisoner-of-war exchange) that same month. His record showed that he deserted the Confederate Army September 21, 1863. He married Elizabeth Henson on December 3, 1857. Further information about their family is unknown to this writer.

Benjamin Ingram (1840-?) married Charity Gilbert on July 15, 1856. He enlisted in Company B of the Georgia 23rd Regiment at Camp McDonald on August 31, 1861. He was at the Battle of Charlottesville, Virginia. He was hospitalized with consumption in December, 1862. He was captured at the Battle of Fredericksburg in June, 1863. He was paroled and rejoined his company. On July 21, 1864 he was captured at Winchester, Virginia and sent to military prison in Wheeling and from there transferred to a prison at Camp Chase, Ohio September 16, 1864 where he remained a prisoner-of-war until the surrender of Lee at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865. He returned to Georgia but further information on his family has not been researched by this writer.

Martin Ingram (1844-1863) married Rebecca Bozeman prior to enlisting in the Confederate Army. He was a casualty of the war, dying at Jackson, Mississippi in 1863.

John Little Ingram learned the importance of patriotism from his father, Pvt. John Little Ingram of South Carolina who was a patriot in the American Revolution. Next week’s column will go further backward in time to trace the service of this soldier.

c2005 by Ethelene Dyer Jones; published June 2, 2005 in The Union Sentinel, Blairsville, GA. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.